4.9 out of 5
NEET – (National Eligibility cum Entrance Test) Overview
NEET (National Eligibility cum Entrance Test) examination for UG (Under Graduation) is a national level examination, conducted by NTA (National Testing Agency) under the direction of Ministry of Human Resource Department, India. NEET is a single entry test and is taken once a year.
Initially, the medical institutes of India used to conduct their own medical entrance examinations for admission into courses such as MBBS, BDS, AYUSH, BVSc as well as AH.
Now, under the guidance of the Ministry of Human Resource Department, only a single entrance test is taken to secure admission into various reputed medical colleges of India such as AIIMS, PGIMER, and other institutes including government colleges, private medical institutions and state-run medical institutes.
Last year, NEET 2020 was conducted in September 2020. There were 15.97 lakh enrolments for NEET 2020 and approximately 7 lakh candidates out of the total enrolled appeared for the NEET examination
Tentative dates for NEET 2022
Mostly the NEET new date will be in the first week of May, to be precise on the first Sunday of May 2021 which is Sunday.
It is expected that there will be some delay in the process of NEET 2021 as schools have not been reopened as of now and also there has been a change in the regular schedule of NEET 2021 examination due to COVID’19.
There is still no official confirmation of the changes in the NEET 2021 syllabus. The updates regarding the NEET new date and the syllabus will be released on the official website.
|NEET 2021 Important Dates||Tentative Event Dates 2022|
|Application Release||1 week of December 2021|
|Application submission last date||Last week of December 2021|
|Correction window for application||3rd week of January 2022 to last week of January 2022|
|Admit card Release||4 week of March 2022|
|NEET 2021 Exam Date||1 week of May 2022|
|Availability of Answer key by NTA||2 week of May 2022|
|Declaration of Final Result||1 week of June 2022|
|Start Date of NEET 2021 Counselling||2 week of June 2022|
Changes in Syllabus and NEET preparation books
Knowing about the exact syllabus will help the students to choose the NEET books and more specifically the best Physics book for NEET , best Biology book for NEET and best Chemistry book for NEET
There are many assumptions being made underlying the conduction of NEET 2021 exam including the NEET new date. The latest assumption was given by Mr. Manish Sisodia during NCERT’s 57th general council meeting.
It is being assumed that the new NEET syllabus has requested for the 50% of reduction in standard 12th syllabus for the academic year of 2021-2022 as the schools were unable to utilize the complete classroom.
The students were not able to access the classrooms for nearly 7-8 months. Also, still the schools have not reopened. This has affected the regular study patterns and mental health of the students.
The complete information will be available on the official website of NTA – NEET (UG – 2021) as well as here as soon as the official confirmation is received and official document arrives.
Other thing which should be taken into consideration is that until NEET last date i.e. NEET 2020, the syllabus for NEET examination was prepared by Medical Council of India but this responsibility has been handed over to National Medical Commission (NMC). The syllabus for NEET 2021 will be finalised by National Medical Commission (NMC).
Best Books for NEET 2021 preparation
The list of NEET preparation books for Physics are:
- The Physics book of NCERT both of grade 11 and grade 12
- Concepts of Physics by H.C. Verma
- Objective Physics by D.C. Pandey
- Fundamental Physics by Pradeep
- Problems in General Physics by I.E. Irodov
The list of NEET preparation books for Chemistry are:
- The Chemistry book of NCERT both of grade 11 and grade 12
- Concise Inorganic Chemistry by J.D. Lee
- Physical Chemistry by O.P. Tandon
The list of NEET preparation books for Biology are:
- The Biology book of NCERT both of grade 11 and grade 12
- Objective Biology by Dinesh
- Objective Botany by Ansari
- Pradeep guide – Biology
Factors affecting the selection of NEET preparation books
It is expected that there will be a total of 180 questions according to the previous years’ question allocations.
As per the previous examination patterns, there will be a total of 180 questions having 720 maximum marks.
The number of questions will be divided into 4 sections of PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY & BOTANY-ZOOLOGY and the duration of the test will be 3 hours.
According to the previous year marking schemes, a correct answer will attract +4 marks and an incorrect answer will attract a penalty of -1 marks.
Question Paper Language(s): There are 11 languages in which NEET question papers have been made – English, Hindi, Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Marathi, Odia, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu.
In case of any dispute in the paper translation, the English version of the question paper will be considered
The pandemic and subsequent disruptions and chaos caused by it have pushed back the original dates and also it is assumed that there will be few changes regarding the NEET 2021 Exam. As per the previous year’s norms, NEET 2021 will also be conducted offline. If there are any changes, they will be communicated through the official notice on the website of www.ntaneet.ac.in .
It is therefore advised to the candidates to keep checking the official website for any updates.
The short summary of the subjects, questions and marks is given below:
|Subject Allocation||Total number of questions||Maximum Marks Allocated|
It is to be noted that the Biology section comprises two subsections which are Zoology and Botany and both will have equal number of questions i.e. 45 so the total questions in the Biology section will add up to 90. Similarly the marks allocation to Botany and Zoology both will be 180 marks each which will then add up to 360 marks for the Biology section in total.
The short summary of marking scheme of expected NEET 2021 paper is given below:
|Marking Scheme Details||Allocation of Marks|
|Not Answered||0 (No addition or Deduction)|
The first step after knowing the basic details regarding NEET 2021 is to be aware of the NEET 2021 syllabus. As stated earlier, there may be changes in the NEET 2021 syllabus due to the disruption caused by COVID’19.
The topics conveyed by National Testing Agency (NTA) for the syllabus of previous years examination that is NEET 2020 are:
As per NEET 2020 we have syllabus on a high level as below:
|Syllabus of class 11- NEET – Physics:||Syllabus of Class 12 – NEET – Physics:|
|Physical world and measurement||Electrostatics|
|Laws of Motion||Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism|
|Work, Energy and Power||Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents|
|Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body||Electromagnetic Waves|
|Properties of Bulk Matter||Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation|
|Thermodynamics||Atoms and Nuclei|
|Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory||Electronic Devices|
|Oscillations and Waves|
|Syllabus of class 11 – NEET – Chemistry:||Syllabus of class 12 – NEET – Chemistry|
|Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry||Solid State|
|Structure of Atom||Solutions|
|Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties||Electrochemistry|
|Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure||Chemical Kinetics|
|States of Matter: Gases and Liquids||Surface Chemistry|
|Thermodynamics||General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements|
|Equilibrium||p- Block Elements|
|Redox Reactions||d and f Block Elements|
|s-Block Element (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)||Haloalkanes and Haloarenes|
|Some p-Block Elements||Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers|
|Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques||Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids|
|Hydrocarbons||Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen|
|Chemistry in Everyday Life|
|Syllabus of class 11 – NEET – Biology:||Syllabus of class 12 – NEET – Biology:|
|Diversity in Living World||Reproduction|
|Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants||Genetics and Evolution|
|Cell Structure and Function||Biology and Human Welfare|
|Plant Physiology||Biotechnology and Its Applications|
|Human physiology||Ecology and environment|
The more detailed topic wise description of the syllabus as per the best books of NEET is given below.
It is to be noted that the description which is given below is according to the NEET 2020 examination. The best books of NEET though contains all the topics (the topics which were not part of NEET 2020 are also included)
NEET 2021 PHYSICS syllabus: CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement
- Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.
- Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.
- Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
UNIT II: Kinematics
- Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).
- Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.
- Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components.
- Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.
UNIT III: Laws of Motion
- Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
- Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.
- Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).
UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Power
- Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
- Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non – conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
- Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.
- Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.
- Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
UNIT VI: Gravitation
- Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
- Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.
UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter
- Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.
- Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
- Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
- Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.
- Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect.
- Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.
UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics
- Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.
- Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.
UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory
- Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.
- Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path.
UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves
- Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.
- Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect
NEET 2021 Detailed PHYSICS syllabus: CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Electrostatics
- Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
- Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
- Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)
- Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an electrostatic field.
- Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.
UNIT II: Current Electricity
- Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and nonlinear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity.
- Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
- Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.
- Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
- Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
UNIT III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
- Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
- Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
- Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
- Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
- Para-, dia- magnetic and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.
- Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
UNIT IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
- Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.
- Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.
- AC generator and transformer.
UNIT V: Electromagnetic Waves
- Need for displacement current.
- Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
- Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
UNIT VI: Optics
- Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
- Scattering of light- blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
- Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses.
- Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
- Wave optics: Wave front and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts.
- Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.
- Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.
- Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
- Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.
UNIT VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
- Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation- particle nature of light.
- Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).
UNIT VIII: Atoms and Nuclei
- Alpha- particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.
- Radioactivity- alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.
UNIT IX: Electronic Devices
- Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductors; semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, diode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
NEET 2021 CHEMISTRY syllabus: CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
- General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.
- Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
- Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
UNIT II: Structure of Atom
- Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
- Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence.
UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
- Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.
UNIT V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
- Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.
- Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).
UNIT VI : Thermodynamics
- First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.
- Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.
- Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.
UNIT VII: Equilibrium
- Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium- Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea)., buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions
- Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.
UNIT IX: Hydrogen
- Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydridesionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure;
UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
- Group I and group 2 elements:
- General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
- Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:
- Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium.
- Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements
- General Introduction to p-Block Elements.
- Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
- General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.
- Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses.
UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques
- General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
- Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.
- Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons
- Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.
- Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
- Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
- Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution-Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.
UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry
- Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.
CHEMISTRY: CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Solid State
- Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.
UNIT II: Solutions
- Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor.
UNIT III: Electrochemistry
- Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.
UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics
- Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
UNIT V: Surface Chemistry
- Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.
UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
- Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
UNIT VII: p- Block Elements
- Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3, PCI5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
- Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
- Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
- Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements
- General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
- Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
- Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds
- Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems).
UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
- Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation.
- Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only).
- Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
- Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
- Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
- Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.
UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
- Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
- Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
- Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.
- Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.
- Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
UNIT XIV: Biomolecules
- Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.
- Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
- Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).
- Vitamins- Classification and function.
- Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA
UNIT XV: Polymers
- Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.
UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life
- Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
- Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
- Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
BIOLOGY: CONTENTS OF CLASS XI SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Diversity in Living World
- What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
- Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
- Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).
- Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).
UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
- Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).
- Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function
- Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
- Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
- B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
UNIT IV: Plant Physiology
- Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
- Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
- Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
- Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
- Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
UNIT V: Human Physiology
- Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and
- digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
- Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
- Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
- Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
- Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal musclecontractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
- Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
- Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease). (Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.)
BIOLOGY: CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS
UNIT I: Reproduction
- Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
- Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
- Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
- Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).
UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution
- Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism- Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
- Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation- Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA fingerprinting.
- Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare
- Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
- Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
- Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications
- Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
- Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
UNIT V: Ecology and environment
- Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
- Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
- Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms,extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warming; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues
How to go on to select the best books for NEET preparation?
The selection of correct NEET preparation books is very important for all the students appearing for NEET and especially for those students who have just decided to give the NEET 2021 exam.
The journey of preparation for NEET 2021 examination is long and the serious students generally start their preparation well in advance like from 11th or 12th grade. They start preparing 1-2 years prior to the NEET 2021 examination.
There is an explosion of study material and hundreds of books available for preparation of NEET 2021 in the market. Selecting the correct books is often a confusing task.
Continue reading this article to remove the confusion regarding which books are best books for NEET 2021 preparation and what to know before searching for the “best chemistry book for NEET, best physics book for NEET, and the best biology book for NEET!”
The first step in preparing for NEET is to understand the characteristics and nuances of NEET examination.
Knowing the analysis of previous year question papers can help in guiding the further course of preparation and also help in selecting the best books for NEET 2021 preparation.
Here are some observations divided section wise based on the previous years’ paper trends:
- It has been observed that the Physics section is the toughest nut to crack
- The questions in Physics section are calculation intensive and lengthy
- It is advised to the students to revise all the formulas thoroughly
- The maximum weightage in the Physics section is given to the mechanics. A student should be thorough with the basics and the concepts of Mechanics.
- After Mechanics, the second most important topic is Electrodynamics. One can expect a fair amount of questions from Electrodynamics topics
- The section of Chemistry is observed to be of moderate difficulty
- As the years have passed, more application based questions are being asked rather than complete theory based sectional paper
- It is to be noted that significant amount of questions are being asked from organic chemistry
- Generally questions are not asked of combined
- Biology is of moderate difficulty and comprises of 2 subsections which are zoology and botany
- Zoology and Botany both consists of 45 questions each
- A student is advised to prepare thoroughly from NCERT book as majority of the questions are asked from the NCERT book itself
Some important tips
- A student should not miss the important points which are given at the end of the chapters in the NCERT book, especially in the physics section
- It is advised to prepare all the examples from the NCERT books
- The Physics and Chemistry sections have a combination of multiple choice questions and numerical. So, it is advised that apart from just cramming or reading the text, the priority should be given to application based questions as well as the numerical also.
- The understanding of the basic concepts underlying the chapters should be given priority
- The importance should be given to solving the last ten years question paper and mock tests as this will help in identifying the important topics and areas from where the questions are often asked.
- Biology is the most important section, as in case of any tie in the scores, the marks obtained in the biology section are considered as tie breaker.
- In Chemistry section, more attention should be given in reading the concepts of Chemical Bonding and Coordination compounds.
- In Biology, Human physiology is the topic of extremely great importance. Except Human physiology, Genetics is also given a lot of weightage in the Biology section. It is advised that a student should read these two topics in great depth.
- As far as the NEET 2021 preparation is considered, NCERT books are a must do. The first course of action should be to cover all the topics of all the sections from the NCERT books. NCERT books should be the first priority as the major chunk of the examination questions are from the NCERT books
- A student should first complete solving the NCERT class 11 book then go for NCERT class 12 book. After completion of this task, the student should move on to select and chose other important books and reading materials
Frequently asked Questions (FAQs)
- How was NEET 2020 conducted and what were the changes in NEET 2020 due to the disruption caused by Coronavirus?
- How many sections are there in the NEET question paper?
- Biology(Botany + Zoology)
- Do I have to carry any stationery in the examination hall?
- Do I need to carry any rough sheets for doing rough work during NEET 2021?
- Does the question paper of NEET take into consideration the syllabus of other state boards?
- In order to score well in NEET, when is the best time to start preparing?
- How many marks are required to secure admission into MBBS college?
- How many seats are there in medical colleges in India?
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